Grammar หรือไวยากรณ์เป็นสิ่งที่จำเป็นในการสื่อสารภาษาอังกฤษ อย่างไรก็ดีการทำความเข้าใจในหลักการอาจเป็นเรื่องลำบากสำหรับผู้ที่ไม่ค่อยมีโอกาสได้อยู่ในสิ่งแวดล้อมที่มีการใช้ภาษาเยอะ อย่างไรก็ดีหากค่อยๆทำความเข้าใจองค์ประกอบของ Grammar ต่างๆที่มีทั้งการใช้ Preposition กับเรื่องของสถานที่การใช้ Preposition กับเรื่องของเวลาที่ด้วย, การใช้ Some Any หรือเรื่องอื่นๆก็สามารถเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นที่ดีในการเรียนภาษาอังกฤษได้ แม้ว่าในวันนี้เราอาจจะยังเข้าใจไม่หมดก็ตาม และนี่คือวิธีการอธิบายองค์ประกอบของ Grammar ต่างๆด้วย Mind Map โดย Daniel Tay ว่ามีส่วนไหนอย่างไรบ้าง

Mind Map สรุป Gramma (ไวยากรณ์) ภาษาอังกฤษ

ทั้งนี้ Mind Map มีประโยชน์อย่างมากในการเช็คดูว่าเรื่องไหนที่เรายังไม่เข้าใจเพื่อที่จะได้ศึกษาเพิ่มเติม และสามารถเห็นภาพได้อย่างง่ายๆว่าหากเราจะประยุกต์ใช้ในสถานการณ์หนึ่งๆจะต้องรู้เรื่องอะไรบ้าง

(โปรดคลิกที่รูปเพื่อขยาย)

วิธีอธิบาย Grammar (ไวยากรณ์) ภาษาอังกฤษด้วย Mindmap

http://visual.ly/english-grammar-verbs danieltaysingapore

ตารางสรุป Grammar ที่สำคัญ

tense positive/negative/question usage signal words
Simple PresentPresent
  • P: He speaks.
  • N: He does not speak.
  • Q: Does he speak?
  • a single or repeated action in the present
  • general validity
  • actions happening one after the other
  • confirmed future actions (time table, schedule)
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually if-clause type I (If I talk, …)
Present ProgressivePresent Continuous
  • P: He is speaking.
  • N: He is not speaking.
  • Q: Is he speaking?
  • action currently taking place
  • action limited to a particular timeframe
  • already planned or agreed-upon future action
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
Simple PastPreterite P: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
  • a single or repeated action in the past
  • actions happening one after the other in the past
  • a new action that interrupts an action that was already taking place
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if-clause type II (If I talked, …)
Past ProgressivePreterite Continuous
Past Continuous
P: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
  • emphasis on the process of an action taking place in the past
  • multiple actions taking place at the same time
  • an action that was taking place when interrupted by a new action
when, while, as long as
Present Perfect SimplePerfect P: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
  • the result is emphasised
  • action that lasts to the present moment
  • action that has just been completed
  • completed action with influence on the present
  • an action that has never/once/more than once taken place up to the time of speaking
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Present Perfect ProgressivePerfect Continuous P: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
  • the action is emphasised (not the result)
  • action that has lasted until the present time
  • completed action with influence on the present
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Past Perfect SimplePluperfect
Past Anterior
P: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • emphasises only the fact that something took place before a certain point in the past
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if-clause type III (If I had talked, …)
Past Perfect ProgressivePluperfect Continuous
Past Anterior Continuous
P: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
  • action before a certain point in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • emphasises the action or length of the action
for, since, the whole day, all day
Future I Simple(will)
Future I
P: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?
  • events in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • suppositions about the future
in a year, next …, tomorrow
if-clause type I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
supposition: I think, probably, perhaps
Future I Simple(going to) P: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
  • pre-existing intention regarding the future
  • logical conclusion regarding the future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future I ProgressiveFuture Continuous P: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
  • action that will be taking place at a certain point in the future
  • certain or obvious events
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future II SimpleFuture II
Future Perfect
P: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
  • action that will have been completed by a future time
by Monday, in a week
Future II ProgressiveFuture II Continuous
Future Perfect Progressive
P: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
  • action that will have been completed by a future time
  • emphasises the length of the action
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long
Conditional I SimpleSubjunctive II (Present)
Form of Possibility
P: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?
  • action that could possibly take place
if-clause type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)
Conditional I ProgressiveSubjunctive II Continuous (Present)
Continuous Form of Possibility
P: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?
  • action that could possibly take place
  • emphasises the action or the length of the action
Conditional II SimpleSubjunctive II (Past)
Perfect Form of Possibility
P: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
  • action that otherwise might have taken place in the past
if-clause type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
Conditional II ProgressiveSubjunctive II Continuous (Past)
Continuous Perfect Form of Possibility
P: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?
  • action that otherwise might have taken place in the past
  • emphasises the action or length of the action
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ที่มา: https://english.lingolia.com/en/grammar/tenses/overview

แนะนำให้อ่านเพิ่ม:  วิธีใช้ Preposition (บุพบท) กับสถานที่ในภาษาอังกฤษ (Infographic)